CH.A.D.D. Canada is a charitable organization that aims to help support, educate, and ultimately better the lives of individuals with ADHD, and those who care for them.
We have Chapters in communities across Canada, where support meetings are held regularly. We also sponsor various workshops, presentations and conferences, distributing the latest breakthroughs and techniques in dealing with or managing ADHD.
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children: diagnosis and treatment
The medical and social significance of the problem of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is extremely high, as a result of which this condition is in the sphere of professional interests not only of pediatric neurologists, psychiatrists and pediatricians, but also teachers
#01/10 Keywords: Atomoxetine, Vitamin therapy, Genetic mediation, Hyperactivity, Impulsivity, Biofeedback method, Catecholamine metabolism disorder, Inattention, Pediatrics, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity disorder, pediatric
V. M. Studenikin, S. V. Balkanskaya, V. I. Shelkovsky
The medical and social significance of the problem of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is extremely high, as a result of which this condition is in the sphere of professional interests not only of pediatric neurologists, psychiatrists and pediatricians, but also of teachers and psychologists [1-5].
The Russian-language name of ADHD is an adapted version of the English-language term “attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder”. ADHD is a widespread condition among children who have reached senior preschool and school age. The fact that ADHD is not a disabling disease does not mean that there is no need for therapy.
ADHD is the name of an etiologically heterogeneous group of behavioral disorders in children over 5 years of age. These behavioral changes are accompanied by impaired attention and hyperactivity (in children older than five years), potentially leading to poor performance (learning disorders), antisocial behavior, and a decrease in the quality of life [1-5]. Currently, the neurobiological nature of ADHD has been established, and its pathogenesis has been partially studied.
According to modern concepts, genetic mediation of ADHD is characteristic of 40% to 75% of cases of the disease [1, 2]. The biochemical substrate in the pathogenesis of ADHD is disorders of catecholamine metabolism. Environmental impact and other factors (prematurity, low birth weight, maternal smoking during pregnancy, etc.) are recognized, but considered less significant .
According to Zuddas A. et al. (2005), psychosocial environmental factors interact with a genetic predisposition to ADHD, causing biological damage . ADHD can be considered as an outcome of perinatal damage to the nervous system or a defect in the formation of a stereotype of behavior in children with impaired psychomotor development. In the first case, there are environmental effects of the intrauterine environment (including hypoxia, exposure to bacterial, viral and other pathogens on the fetus), and in the second, the main role is played by environmental factors in the postnatal life of the child.
Environmental factors that presumably influence the formation of ADHD can be divided, firstly, into endogenous and exogenous, and secondly, into prenatal and postnatal. Prenatal factors of ADHD formation include the following: gestational (burdened obstetric and gynecological history, toxicosis, gestosis, threat of termination of pregnancy, etc. maternal smoking during pregnancy, birth trauma (obstetric), exposure of the fetus to infectious pathogens (viruses, bacteria, viral-viral and viral-bacterial associations), toxic effects on the fetus (heavy metals, intoxicants of plant and synthetic origin, etc.), intrauterine fetal hypoxia (acute and/or chronic), violations of neurochemical and/or neurophysiological parameters of the central nervous system, rhesus conflict (intrauterine formation of a persistent titer of specific antibodies), intrauterine neuroinfections.
Postnatal factors of ADHD formation: prematurity, morphofunctional immaturity, intrauterine development delay (IVD), artificial feeding, intranatal or postnatal anoxia/asphyxia/hypoxia, specific patterns of upbringing in the family, features of individual temperament, alimentary deficiencies (vitamins, minerals, other nutrients), imitation behavior of children, features of cerebral metabolism of various genesis (dopamine, serotonin, glucose, etc.), morphometric features of the central nervous system (cerebellum, basal ganglia, other cerebral structures), disorders of the thyroid gland and other endocrine organs, toxic factors, emotional difficulties in the relationship between parents, upbringing and living in non-family conditions (“institutional”), as well as treatment of ADHD (medication or non-medication) . It is believed that ADHD can be formed due to excessive consumption of sugar, food and beverages of industrial production, containing a large amount of extractives, preservatives and dyes. The impact on ADHD of many hours of watching TV programs from early childhood is no longer considered a significant factor